Hookah research paper

Peak concentration of nicotine in cigarette and shisha are same but the relatively long duration of the shisha use result in considerably greater effective nicotine exposure. Cigars and shisha are known to increase the risk of developing pancreatic cancer [ 27 ].

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The water pipe and the water inside the Shisha apparatus can become an abode to the bacteria such as those causing TB; which can result into the spread and transmission of the disease.

Our findings are in line with the results of the population based study of individuals. In this study it was found that hookah smoking was positively related to metabolic syndrome and almost all components of metabolic syndrome [ 15 ].

Relative Acceptance by Non-Smokers notable smoke irritants filtered out 4. The few studies on the effect of hookah smoking on lipid profile are inconsistent. Also, smoking a hookah delivers more than 2. Results Out of participants were non-smoker, were ex-smoker, were cigarette smoker, were hookah smoker and 41 were both cigarette and hookah smoker.

Furthermore this study also provides the basis for decision making about areas which may be open for future primary research. Surprisingly, we found the effects of hookah smoking were greater with respect to some CVD risk factors compared with cigarette smoking.

Methods Baseline characteristics were recorded in a questionnaire.

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BMJ Open. The first being this as shisha is smoked over coal this adds to the already many harmful toxins to the smoke possesses.

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Is hookah bad for you?